The opening and closing of stomata are regulated by factors such as light, plant carbon dioxide levels, and changes in environmental conditions. Humidity is an example of an environmental condition that regulates the opening or closing of stomata. When humidity conditions are optimal, stomata are open Guard cell function. Guard cells are cells surrounding each stoma. They help to regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata. Light is the main trigger for the opening or closing. Each guard cell has a relatively thick cuticle on the pore-side and a thin one opposite it
uptake in plants. The current work focuses on the regulation of stomatal movements by red light, carbon dioxide and the circadian system and attempts to uncover molecular mechanisms that control guard cell function. The signaling pathway that underlays stomatal opening in response to red light is yet to be fully elucidated Blue light is one of the dominant environmental signals that control stomatal movements in leaves of plants in a natural environment. This blue light response is mediated by blue/UV A.. Blue light is one of the dominant environmental signals that control stomatal movements in leaves of plants in a natural environment. This blue light response is mediated by blue/UV A light-absorbing phototropins (phots) and cryptochromes (crys). Red/far-red light-absorbing phytochromes (phys) also play a role in the control of stomatal aperture Circadian rhythm of stomatal aperture is mainly regulated by light/darkness. Blue and red light induce stomatal opening through different mechanisms that are mediated by special receptors. ROP2, a member of Rho GTPase family in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), has been found to negatively regulate light-induced stomatal opening MYB60 is a positive regulator of stomatal opening, and its expression is induced by blue light and rapidly down-regulated by dehydration (Cominelli et al., 2005).By contrast, MYB61 is a negative regulator of light-induced stomatal opening(Liangetal.,2005;Chen et al., 2012)
light is able to enhance the blue light-mediated stomatal opening response, since, in the absence of red light, blue light is very inefﬁcient in inducing stomatal opening (Ogawa et al., 1978; Kinoshita et al., 2001; Mao et al., 2005). Red light also plays a role in inducing the opening of stomata, but require Stomatal opening is also induced by light, independently by blue and red light, signaling for the plant the need for photosynthesis and CO 2 uptake. In addition to direct light regulation, stomatal movements during a night and day cycle are controlled by circadian rhythms ensuring that stomatal opening is initiated prior to the break of dawn.
concerning light-stimulated stomatal open-ing. On the basis of the highly specialized metabolism in guard cells, which facilitates the rapid transport of ions across membranes, a synergistic effect between blue and red light on stomatal opening has been proposed. For other stomatal responses, particularly stom-atal closure responses induced by. Red light alone causes partial stomatal opening. Red light plus blue light (or strong blue light alone) causes complete stomatal opening. This is shown in Figure 18.8 of your text. Light-energized chlorophyll is thought to stimulate stomatal opening by driving photosynthesis Stomata are small adjustable pores formed by pairs of guard cells that enable gas exchange between leaves and the atmosphere, thus directly affecting water loss and CO₂ uptake in plants. The current work focuses on the regulation of stomatal movements by red light, carbon dioxide and the circadian system and attempts to uncover molecular mechanisms that control guard cell function
Besides, light-regulated guard cell (GC)-specific metabolic levels, mesophyll-derived sucrose, and CO 2 concentration within GCs also play dual roles in stomatal opening. Thus, light-induced stomatal opening is tightly accompanied by brake mechanisms, allowing plants to coordinate carbon gain and water loss Stomatal opening is one of many physiological responses of plants regulated by blue light (BL). Recently, progress has been made in identifying several genes encoding putative photoreceptors for BL responses, including CRY1 and CRY2, involved in such diverse processes as hypocotyl elongation (Ahmad and Cashmore, 1993; Cashmore et al., 1999), anthocyanin synthesis (Ahmad et al., 1995; Wade et. 2005; Shimazaki et al., 2007). Stomatal aperture is ﬁnely regulated by light, water status, the phytohor-mone abscisic acid, and other environmental factors (Pandey et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2010). Blue light (390- 550 nm) is one of the most effective stimuli for sto-matal opening; blue light responses of stomata ar Stomatal aperture or closure is regulated by changes in the metabolism of the two surrounding does not increase K+ and light-induced stomatal opening rate, at least in the range of sucrose concentration tested (0.1 to 100 mM), and (iii) sucrose induces stomatal closure only a
.The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells known as guard cells that are responsible for regulating the size of the stomatal opening Stomata can be regarded as hydraulically driven valves in the leaf surface, which open to allow CO2 uptake and close to prevent excessive loss of water. Movement of these 'Watergates' is regulated by environmental conditions, such as light, CO2 and humidity. Guard cells can sense environmental conditions and function as motor cells within the stomatal complex
Stomatal opening is known to be regulated by a combination of light intensity and light quality (Frechilla et al. 2000; Muneer et al. 2014). Moreover, stomatal opening responses are regulated by a complex combination of light energy conversion, light signaling, and ion transport across guard cell membranes (Takemiya et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2016) As the signaling mechanisms governing light regulation of stomatal opening/closure has been recently summarized in a few excellent reviews (Chen et al., 2012, Kollist et al., 2014, Inoue and Kinoshita, 2017, Matthews et al., 2019), the scope of this review is limited to highlight recent advances in our understanding of light-regulated stomatal development and patterning in Arabidopsis, and to. 5. The theory could not explain the extra effectiveness of blue light at the time of stomatal opening. Theory # 3. Theory of Glycolate Metabolism: Zelitch (1963) proposed that production of glycolic acid in the guard cells is an important factor in stomatal opening. Glycolate is produced under low concentration of CO 2
It is well known that stomatal morphogenesis is controlled by genetic as well as environmental factors and in general, an increase in light intensity results in an increase in stomatal index and a systemic signal from mature leaves determine the response.43,75-78 Light is perceived by various photoreceptors,79,80 and stomatal movements are regulated by both blue and red light Opening of stomata is favored by reduced CO 2 concentrations while an increase in CO2 concentration causes stomatal closing. This occurs even in presence of the light. In specific species of plants, stomata also close merely by breathing near leaves Background: Opening of stomatal pores is essential for photosynthetic CO 2 fixation and transpiration in terrestrial plants. Light-induced stomatal opening includes two mechanisms: the blue light-specific response, which operates through phototropin receptor kinases, and the red light-induced response, which relies on photosynthesis Fig. 5 Electrical properties of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts after elimination of the plasma membrane K+ and anion currents, redrawn after Lohse & Hedrich (1992). (a) Currentvoltage relationship of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase measured in the whole-cell patch clamp mode. A voltage ramp was applied from 240 to 10 mV. (b) Voltage relationship of whole-cell currents, with ATP in the pipette.
Stomatal opening is induced by light, with blue and red light stimulating stomatal opening by two distinct pathways. While blue light acts a signal, red light also acts as an energy source, driving photosynthesis in chloroplasts located in guard cells and mesophyll cells Water evaporation and photosynthesis are regulated by the stomatal pores in plants, which are closed in darkness but open in response to blue light. There is evidence only for the phototropin blue light receptors (PHOT1 and PHOT2) in mediating blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized role for.
Stomatal movements are regulated by many environmental signals, such as light, CO 2 , temperature, humidity, and drought. Recently, we showed that photoperiodic flowering components have positive effects on light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we determined that light-induced stomatal opening and increased stomatal conductance were larger in plants grown under. , but the most possible theory for a nocturnal response of stomata in CAM plants is photoperiodic circadian rhythm Stomatal control is regulated by a number of environmental factors, including CO2 level, light, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Guard cell turgor pressure is a key parameter regulating stomatal opening and closure, and it in turn is mediated by ionic fluxes via cation and anion channels anchored in the guard cell membrane Light-Induced Stomatal Opening Is Impaired in the (A) Time course of water loss from excised leaves, expressed as a atmyb60-1 Mutant percentage of the initial fresh weight at indicated intervals. Eac Protein phosphorylation is known to be important in the blue light-induced stomatal opening pathway. Blue light perception by phototropins causes the multiple phosphorylation of phototropins themselves, the phosphorylation of BLUS1 kinase and ultimately the phosphorylation and activation of the guard cell plasma membrane H +-ATPase
land plants. In flowering plants, stomatal opening and closure is actively regulated by a stimulus-response coupling network. Whether active stomatal responses are present in other land plant lineages such as ferns has been hotly debated. Here we show that stomatal responses in the fern Ceratopteri For Review Only Blue light induces stomatal opening 4 2011). Light energy transformation, light signal transduction, membrane ion transport and an abundance of plasma membrane H+-ATPase (HA) in leaves work together to regulate the process of stomatal opening (Shimazaki et al., 2007) Stomatal Biology • Guard cells change their size and shape in response to internal and external stimuli - Results in alteration of stomatal aperture - Pore size is regulated by uptake and release of water to change turgor pressure • Aerial leaves typically have most stomates interspersed on lower (abaxial) surface, but often on upper (adaxial) surface as well • Floating leaves lack.
Previous studies indicate that a continual source of adenosine 5'-triphosphate is required for both opening and closing of stomata. However, vanadate (Na,VO, at 500 p~) as well as a light/dark transition induced stomatal closing in epiderma The Role of PtdIns(4,5)P 2 in Stomatal Opening. We observed that exogenously applied PtdIns(4,5)P 2 induced stomatal opening without light irradiation, and GFP:PH PLCδ1, a biosensor widely used to detect PtdIns(4,5)P 2 in plant cells, 8, 9 translocated from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to white light irradiation. These results suggest a light-dependent increase in PtdIns(4,5. substantially down-regulated by dehydration. Transpiration of intact leaves was reduced in cych;l RNAi plants compared with the wild-type control in light but not in darkness. CYCH;1 down-regulation impaired blue light-induced stomatal opening but did not affect guard cell development or abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure stomatal opening is the phosphorylation-dependent activation of plasma membrane H+-ATPases. Blue light-induced stomatal opening is mediated through phototropins PHOT1 and PHOT2, BLUE LIGHT SIGNALING1 kinase, and activation of H+-ATPases (Shimazaki et al., 2007; Takemiya and Shimazaki, 2016). ABA is involved in both stomatal closure and opening.
Figure 1 Stomatal opening and closure. The aperture of the stomatal pore is regulated by the turgor pressure of guard cells. During stomatal opening (left) the osmotically active solutes and water flow in and during stomatal closure they flow out (right) across the guard cell plasma membrane Nitric Oxide Inhibits Blue Light-Specific Stomatal Opening Via Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways in Vicia Guard Cells Xiao Zhang 1,2, Atsushi Takemiya 1, Toshinori Kinoshita 1 and Ken-ichiro Shimazaki 1,* 1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka, 810-8560 Japan 2 Henan Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Biology, College of Life Sciences, Henan University. blue light-mediated opening response with characteristics similar to species with normal chloroplast development and a novel phytochrome-mediated opening response. Keywords: Blue light — Paphiopedilum — Phytochrome — Stomata — Zeaxanthin. Introduction The stomatal response to light is regulated by two majo Gibberellic acid of Arabidopsis regulates the abscisic acid-induced inhibition of stomatal opening in response to light. Plant Science, 2009. Dong Ju Lee. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER
Influence of Environmental Factors Light, CO2, Temperature, and Relative Humidity on Stomatal Opening and Development: A Review Elisa Driesen 1, Wim Van den Ende 2, Maurice De Proft 3 and Wouter Saeys 4,* The formation of stomata is regulated by master transcription factors . Light is a major stimulus involved in Stomatal conductance, and has two key elements that are involved in the process: the Stomatal response to blue light, and photosynthesis in the chloroplast of the guard cel
Stomatal opening is driven by the accumulation of K + salts and sugars in guard cells, which is mediated by electrogenic proton pumps in the plasma membrane and/or metabolic activity. Opening responses are achieved by coordination of light signaling, light-energy conversion, membrane ion transport, and metabolic activity in guard cells Stomata opening are sensitive to red light and blue light, and blue light is more effective, it stimulates opening by a blue-light receptor: zeaxanthin. 22. Blue light has direct effect on stomatal opening. At low fluence rate, blue light causes stomatal opening, but not red light Regulation of de-etiolation and stomatal opening responses by HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT and HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA BY Xiaodong Sun IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Advised by Dr. Min Ni August 201
How Light Affects the Stomatal Opening in a Leaf Abstract ===== My aim of this investigation was to check the affect of environmental factors affecting stomatal opening. My experiment was designed to check the stomata opening in light. Plants move in ways that may not seem obvious. The opening and closing of stomata is one example of this movement Light has both direct and indirect effects on stomata. Blue light (especially) can bring about stomatal opening directly. The mechanisms by which the light is perceived, and the subsequent signal transduction pathway, are currently under investigation. Light can also indirectly cause stomatal opening vi Rise in temperature induces stomatal opening while fall in temperature causes closure. At 38°-40°C, stomata open even in darkness. In some plant species, stomata remain closed even under continuous light at 0°C. 3. Carbon dioxide: Low CO 2 concentration induces stomatal opening and vice versa
Good stomatal opening was obtained in the red and blue light but no opening in the green light. How does the light bring about the opening of stomata? • Early worker assumes that guard cells, when exposed to light and warmth, increased their output of osmotocally active substances through the process of photosynthesis.(more -ve osmotic potential and a subsequent increase in turgor cause. 1.2. Regulation of stomatal opening Rapid stomatal opening is induced by blue and red light, low CO2 concentration and increase in air humidity (Kinoshita et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2010; Merilo et al., 2014). Stomatal opening requires ion movement into guard cells against concentration gradient: the majority of ion uptake is driven by the hyper Ä The stomatal closure requires ATP that is not mentioned in the above schemes. Steward (1964) proposed following scheme to explain stomatal movement : l Opening of stomata in light: Following steps are involved : Ä pH of guard cells increases due to use of in photosynthesis in presence of light
High quality example sentences with stomatal opening in context from reliable sources - Ludwig is the linguistic search engine that helps you to write better in Englis Stomatal opening needs to be tightly regulated to facilitate CO2 uptake and prevent excess water loss. Plant Rho-type (ROP) GTPase 2 (ROP2) is a molecular component of the system that negatively regulates light-induced stomatal opening
In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) is regulated by gibberellic acid via a mechanism opposing that of the ABA-induced inhibition of stomatal opening in response to light in Arabidopsis leaves. GA₃ modulated ABA-induced stomatal closing in response to light in a dose-dependent manner Light-Induced Stomatal Opening Is Affected by the fl) Guard Cell Protein Kinase APK1 b cÄrk. Nagat S. Elhaddad, Lee Hunt, Jennifer Sloan, Julie E. Gray* Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Abstrac The most effective light for stomatal opening is . Apne doubts clear karein ab Whatsapp par bhi. Try it now. CLICK HERE. 1x 1.5x 2x. Loading DoubtNut Solution for you. Watch 1000+ concepts & tricky questions explained! 10.0 K+ views | 400+ people like thi stomatal closure and stomatal opening (Shimazaki et al., 2007; Hubbard et al., 2012; Murata et al., 2015). Exogenous Ca 2+ ap-plication is known to induce stomatal closure and inhibit light-induced stomatal opening (Peiter et al., 2005; Islam et al., 2010). Elevations of [Ca 2+] cyt are triggered by influx of Ca from th Circadian rhythm of stomatal aperture is mainly regulated by light/darkness. Blue and red light induce stomatal opening through different mechanisms that are mediated by special receptors. ROP2, a member of Rho GTPase family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been found to negatively regulate light-induced stomatal opening. However, the upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)..
Stomatal development involves regulated cell fate decisions that ensure optimal tion of stomatal opening appears to be the passive uptake of CO 2, it also results in water being lost from the leaf by transpiration. have sufﬁcient light, water and CO 2 Stomata are pores on the surfaces of leaves that regulate gas exchange between the plant interior and the atmosphere . Plants adapt to changing environmental conditions in the short term by adjusting the aperture of the stomatal pores, whereas longer-term changes are accomplished by altering the Stomatal opening is initiated by light which activates H+ ATPase pumps. During stomatal opening H + -ATPase pumps H + from the guard cells and hyperpolarizes the membrane, which leads to the activation of K + inward rectifying channels (KAT1, KAT2, AKT1) proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identiﬁed. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation Mechanism of Stomatal Movement Stomatal movements are regulated by the change of turgor pressure in guard cells. When water enters the guard cell, it swells and its unevenly thickened walls stretch up resulting in the opening of stomata
The opening and closing of the stomatal gas exchange holes is regulated by swelling and shrinking of the two surrounding guard cells (Figure 1) Due to the presence of the stomatal pores on plant leaf surfaces, water evaporates through the stomatal openings causing plants to lose water. Cryptochromes (CRY) are blue light photoreceptors that mediate various light-induced responses in plants and animals. Arabidopsis CRY (CRY1 and CRY2) functions through negatively regulating constitutive photomorphogenic (COP) 1, a repressor of photomorphogenesis. Water evaporation and photosynthesis are regulated by the stomatal pores in plants, which are closed in darkness but open in.
blue light. Its stomatal opening could be induced by red light 250 μmol m−2 s−1, but the magnitude of stomatal opening was lower than those at the other light qualities. However, the stomatal opening and photosynthesis of C. ﬂavumwere highly induced by mixed blue and red light rather than pure blue or red light , that dark-induced stomatal closure requires the activation of PTPases and the enhancement of H2O2 levels in guard cells, and stomatal opening caused by light is associated with the inactivation of PTPases and the reduction of H2O2 levels in guard cells tribute to stomatal opening. However, time-resolved CO 2-regulated stomatal conductance changes have not yet been investigated in starch degradation mutants. During stomatal closure, guard cells can dispose of malate and sugars by metabolism, starch biosynthesis and malate efﬂux [4,41,42]. Sugars and malate are als
We expressed the synthetic, light-gated K+ channel BLINK1 in guard cells surrounding stomatal pores in Arabidopsis to enhance the solute fluxes that drive stomatal aperture. BLINK1 introduced a K+ conductance and accelerated both stomatal opening under light exposure and closing after irradiation In Medicago root hairs, CNGC15 is regulated by a potassium-permeable ion channel DMI1. Experiments investigated the role of DMI1 in Arabidopsis guard cells and compared to the role of CNGC15. The DMI1 ion channel appears to be functional in light-induced stomatal opening but is not involved in ABA or Ca2+-induced stomatal closure Stomatal opening/closure plays a key role in balancing a plant's need to conserve water, while still allowing for the exchange of photosynthetic and respiratory gasses with the atmosphere. Stomatal opening/closure can be induced by differences in light quality but a detailed knowledge of the role of light in stomatal regulation in tomato is limited. In this study, we evaluated red and blue.
63 photosynthetically driven opening are both involved in BL-induced stomatal opening when 64 irradiance is not weak (Sharkey and Ogawa 1987). Compared with BL- and RL-induced responses, 65 stomatal opening induced by green light (GL) has been studied less frequently, and findings have 66 been inconsistent among studies Evolution of regulated stomatal pore opening. A developmental approach concerns itself with the correct specification and pattern of stomata. From a physiological point of view, however, the behavior of these final products is key
Read CYCLIN H;1 Regulates Drought Stress Responses and Blue Light-Induced Stomatal Opening by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Arabidopsis on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON STOMATAL MOVEMENT. Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Hercik, F Publication Date: Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1964 Research Org.: Inst. of Biophysics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Brno Sponsoring Org.: USDOE OSTI Identifier: 455547
. Mass spectrometry-generated peptide sequence information was used to clone a Vicia faba complementary DNA, AAPK , encoding a guard cell-specific ABA-activated serine-threonine protein kinase (AAPK). Expression in transformed guard cells of AAPK altered by one amino acid (lysine 43. A variety of factors affect the opening and closing of stomata by altering the size of stomatal pore such as light and dark, CO2 concentration, water supply, pH of the cell sap etc. Opening of the stomata takes place when the guard cells become turgid and due to this their thin walls get extended and thick walls become slightly concave Stomatal opening by IAA and Ethrel in both light and dark is prevented by 0.14 millimolar AgCl. It is suggested that the effect of added IAA, but not that of light, is linked to ethylene production. The possible role of ethylene in stomatal opening during fungal infection is discussed AITC induced stomatal closure and inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. A Ca2+ channel inhibitor, La3+, a Ca2+chelator, EGTA, and an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from internal stores, nicotinamide, inhibited AITC-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevation and stomatal closure, but did not affect inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening
Abstract. Stomatal Opening Rates of Received for publication May 27, 1976 and in revised form August 16, 1976 TODD M. KANA2 AND JOHN H. MILLER Biological Research Laboratory, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13210 ABSTRACT The average opening rate of Vicia faba L. stomata was determined over an initial 20-minute light period following darkness Regulation of stomatal opening and histone modification by photoperiod in Arabidopsis thaliana by Aoki S., Toh S., Nakamichi N., Hayashi Y., Wang Y., Suzuki T., Tsuji H., Kinoshita T. (2019) Saya Aoki, Shigeo Toh, Norihito Nakamichi, Yuki Hayashi, Yin Wang, Takamasa Suzuki, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Toshinori Kinoshita, In Scientific Reports 9, Article. Stomatal patterning and density are two critical features for optimized stomatal function. During stomatal development, the one-cell spacing rule is tightly followed .That means stomata are not formed in direct contact with each other, but with at least one non-stoma cell present between two stomata to enforce the proper opening and closure of the pore The question of whether red light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by a photosynthesis-derived reduction in intercellular [CO2 ] (Ci ) remains controversial and genetic analyses are needed. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein kinase HIGH TEMPERATURE 1 (HT1) is a negative regulator of [CO2 ]-induced stomatal closing and ht1-2 mutant plants do not show stomatal opening to low [CO2 ] A Plasma Membrane Receptor Kinase, GHR1, Mediates Abscisic Acid- and Hydrogen Peroxide-Regulated Stomatal Movement in ArabidopsisW OA Deping Hua,a,1 Cun Wang,a,1 Junna He,a Hui Liao,a Ying Duan,a Ziqiang Zhu,a Yan Guo,a Zhizhong Chen,a andZhizhongGonga,b,2 a State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijin
N2 - Upon incubation of epidermal peels of Commelina communis in 1 millimolar KCl, a synergistic effect of light and low fusicoccin (FC) concentrations on stomatal opening is observed. In 1 millimolar KCl, stomata remain closed even in the light. However, addition of 0.1 micromolar FC results in opening up to 12 micrometers Cytokinin and auxin inhibit abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure by enhancing ethylene production in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2006. Masanori Tamaoki. Nobuyoshi Nakajima. Masanori Tamaoki. Nobuyoshi Nakajima. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper Stomatal movements are regulated by many environmental signals, such as light, CO2, temperature, humidity, and drought. Recently, we showed that photoperiodic flowering components have positive effects on light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana